A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted to evaluate the association between periodontitis (PD) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) and to explore the potential influence of periodontal treatment in patients with CKD. Databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Science direct, Cochrane Database) were screened for relevant articles, focusing on the periodontal status of patients with CKD, published until December 2017. Five hundred and fifty-three articles were identified, and 37 fulfilled the inclusion criteria and were considered in this systematic review. Seventeen articles were included in the meta-analysis and 7 in the review focusing on the impact of periodontal treatment. Most of the identified studies indicated an increased incidence of PD in patients with CKD. Meta-analysis showed an association between CKD and PD, and strength of this association was increased when severe PD was considered (OR = 2.39 (1.70–3.36)). The association could be observed even after adjustment for major CKD risk factors or use of precise diagnosis criteria (OR = 2.26 for severe PD (1.69–3.01)). Analysis of cohort studies indicated an incident rate ratio (IRR) of 1.73. Periodontitis is associated with CKD after multivariable adjustment. Further studies are necessary to determine whether prevention or treatment of PD can reduce the incidence and/or severity of CKD.