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Accelerated orthodontic tooth movement is triggered by procedures that include mucoperiosteum flap surgery and surgical scarring of cortical bone. Our aim was to test whether fiberotomy by itself will accelerate orthodontic tooth movement and diminish relapse.In 34 Wistar rats, alveolar bone resorption and molar tooth movement were measured after fiberotomy, apical full-thickness flap without detachment of gingiva from the roots, or no surgery. Orthodontic appliance was installed at time of surgery and activated for 14 days, generating movement of the first maxillary molar buccal and then removed.Percent of sections in which alveolar bone resorption was detected was significantly higher (p < 0.05) after fiberotomy (27%) in comparison with apical flap surgery (12%) or no surgery (6%), after 30 days. Also, at the end of active phase, the molar moved significantly faster (p < 0.01) and twice the distance after fiberotomy (0.54 ± 0.33) in comparison with apical surgery (0.26 ± 0.12) or no surgery (0.3 ± 0.09). Sixteen days after the appliance was removed, only 12% relapse was recorded in the fiberotomy group, while almost total relapse in other two groups.We conclude that fiberotomy solely accelerated orthodontic tooth movement and diminished relapse.