Transdermal Drug Delivery Using Iontophoresis and Phonophoresis

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Introducing medicines into the human body by way of the skin is an ancient practice, and transdermal delivery has long been a standard for administering medications such as nitroglycerin and scopalamine. Phoresis, another method of transdermal drug delivery, is now being ordered for an increasing number of orthopaedic patients who suffer from inflammation, strains, or sprains. In phoretic drug delivery, enhancers such as electricity or ultrasound are used to stimulate drug absorption in the treatment area. To guide their patients to explore a variety of treatment options, orthopaedic nurses need a greater understanding of these phoretic modalities.

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