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The aim of this study was to analyze the factors that affect the burden of care for primary caregivers of older people during the transition period after discharge from the hospital to home.Using convenience sampling, 95 older patients who had been hospitalized for a hip fracture and their primary caregivers were enrolled. Data pertaining to the burden experienced by the caregivers were collected 1 week and 1 month after discharge from the hospital.The burden of care was characterized as moderate. Physical functioning of the older people improved gradually with time after discharge from hospital (F = 164.582, p < .001) and were negatively related to caregiver burden. The predictive factors for caregiver burden 1 week after hospital discharge included the older people's physical functioning and self-efficacy, which together contributed to 15.6% of the total variance in caregiver burden. The predictive factors for caregiver burden 1 month after hospital discharge were the degree of caregiver burden at 1 week and social support, which together contributed to 56.0% of the total variance in caregiver burden.A health education program should be designed to improve the primary caregiver's knowledge of providing care and suggest strategies to increase social support to reduce the overall burden of care.