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In Part I of this series, the unique considerations about medicating children at different ages were addressed. In Part II, examples of medications used to treat common short-term illnesses in younger patients were examined. In this part, examples of medications used to treat children with two long-term conditions, asthma and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, are identified. Action, contraindications, and safety concerns for these agents are addressed. The challenges and lifestyle changes that these chronic problems pose for children and their parents are also discussed.