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An accurate histological evaluation system was established to improve and quantify the compatibility of membranes to provide bone regeneration in a large mid-diaphyseal bone defect, complementing radiographic evaluation. New bone formation obtained in critical segmental defects covered with tubular ethyl cellulose membranes was examined. Computerized radiography showed gradual new bone formation, which slows after 6 weeks. In a parallel histomorphological assessment, a characteristic process of new bone formation occurs inside the confined space and surrounding tissues. Histological findings are summarized according to the new scoring system, which clarifies the mechanism and provides complementary quantification of guided bone regeneration.