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Prominent osteolysis associated with “ground glass” density of fibrous dysplasia may indicate cystic change or sarcomatous transformation. This complication has been reported only sporadically in the long bones. This article presents clinical, radiographic, and pathologic findings, and outcome of simple curettage and bone graft observed in a series of 8 patients with prominent cystic fibrous dysplasia of the long bone. Magnetic resonance imaging features provide a basis for separation of benign cystic change from malignant transformation. However, biopsy is necessary to distinguish nonspecifi c cystic degeneration from secondary aneurysmal bone cyst. Simple curettage with allo-chip-bone graft is an effective treatment for cystic fibrous dysplasia.