abstractFull article available online at OrthoSuperSite.com/view.asp?rID=35997In our cohort of 555 patients with a total of 1150 vertebral fractures treated with kyphoplasty we performed a 30-day postoperative analysis of cement leakage, neurological symptoms, pulmonary embolism, and infections. In our department, 22% of kyphoplasties were performed with calcium phosphate cement and the remainder with polymethylmethacrylate. All patients were initially assessed by an interdisciplinary kyphoplasty colloquium, composed of consultants in traumatology, radiology, and endocrinology. Indications included fresh traumatic vertebral fractures; painful sintered osteoporotic vertebrae; osteolysis and painful vertebral body collapse caused by multiple myelomas; and lymphomas and pathological fractures due to metastases of malignant tumors (prostate cancer, breast cancer, ovarian cancer, and malignant melanoma) or benign vertebral tumors (hemangioma).Contraindications included patients with instability of the posterior wall and/or pedicles, an infection of the fractured vertebra, a severe hemorrhagic diathesis, known allergies to the cements, pregnancy, and ASA score of 4. The standard postoperative computed tomography scan of the kyphoplasty-treated vertebrae revealed a dorsal cement leakage in 38 vertebrae representing 3.3% of all levels. A permanent monoparesis of the left leg, 2 cases of temporary neurological deficits, 2 cases of hemorrhage, and 1 asymptomatic pulmonary embolism were observed as postoperative complications. We observed no complications relating to polymethylmethacrylate described in the literature. By careful interdisciplinary indication setting and a standardized treatment model, kyphoplasty presents a safe and effective procedure for the treatment of various vertebral fractures.