Chronic inflammation and malabsorption in celiac disease (CD) can cause bone metabolism alterations and bone mineral loss in children and adults. Bone status before and after gluten-free diet, epidemiology of fractures, and possible treatment options for CD-related osteoporosis are presented. Controversial aspects of this complication of CD are discussed.Summary
The relationship between bone derangements and celiac disease (CD) was recognized almost 50 years ago, but many questions are still open. We are now aware that osteoporosis is a relatively frequent atypical presentation of CD, especially in adults, and that undiagnosed CD can be the cause of osteoporosis and related fractures. Chronic inflammatory intestinal diseases, including CD, can affect bone and mineral metabolism because of alterations in both systemic and local regulatory factors. The pathogenetic processes are still controversial, but two main mechanisms seem to be involved: intestinal malabsorption and the presence of chronic inflammation. This review analyzes the published data on bone involvement in children, adolescents, and adults either before or after a gluten-free diet. Special attention is paid to the epidemiology of fractures in celiac patients, considering that fractures are a major complication of osteoporosis and an important problem in the management of a chronic disease like CD. The usefulness of screening osteoporotic patients systematically for CD is still an open question, but some rules can be given. Finally, the current treatment options for children and adults are discussed. Recommendations for future clinical research are proposed.