Sino-Nasal Outcome Test–22: Translation, Cross-cultural Adaptation, and Validation in Hebrew-Speaking Patients

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To perform the translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and validation of the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test–22 (SNOT-22) questionnaire to the Hebrew language.

Study Design and Setting

A single-center prospective cross-sectional study.

Subjects and Methods

Seventy-three chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients and 73 patients without sinonasal disease filled the Hebrew version of the SNOT-22 questionnaire. Fifty-one CRS patients underwent endoscopic sinus surgery, out of which 28 filled a postoperative questionnaire. Seventy-three healthy volunteers without sinonasal disease also answered the questionnaire. Internal consistency, test-retest reproducibility, validity, and responsiveness of the questionnaire were evaluated.


Questionnaire reliability was excellent, with a high internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha coefficient, 0.91-0.936) and test-retest reproducibility (Spearman’s coefficient, 0.962). Mean scores for the preoperative, postoperative, and control groups were 50.44, 29.64, and 13.15, respectively (P < .0001 for CRS vs controls, P < .001 for preoperative vs postoperative), showing validity and responsiveness of the questionnaire.


The Hebrew version of SNOT-22 questionnaire is a valid outcome measure for patients with CRS with or without nasal polyps.

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