To determine which teaching method—otoscopy simulation (OS), web-based module (WM), or standard classroom instruction (SI)—produced the best improvement in the diagnosis of middle/external ear pathologies and the development of otoscopy clinical skills.Study Design
Prospective randomized controlled nonclinical trial.Setting
Preclerkship undergraduate medical education.Subjects and Methods
Fifty-four medical students (first year, 26; second year, 28) were randomized to receive 1 of the 3 interventions: OS, WM, or SI. All students underwent baseline testing of diagnostic accuracy (25 ear pathologies) and otoscopy skills. Immediately following each intervention and 3 months later, testing was repeated.Results
Baseline scores for diagnostic accuracy and otoscopy skills did not differ across intervention groups. Immediately postintervention, all groups showed an improvement in diagnostic accuracy (P < .001). OS scored significantly higher than SI (P < .001), as did WM (P = .003). At 3-month follow-up, all groups continued to demonstrate improved diagnostic accuracy as compared with baseline. Again, OS showed improvement over SI (P = .031). For otoscopy clinical skills, only OS improved immediately postintervention (P < .001). OS had significantly higher scores than WM and SI (P < .001). At 3-month follow-up, OS again showed improvement over WM (P < .001) and SI (P = .009).Conclusion
All groups showed an improvement in diagnostic accuracy immediately postintervention, with the largest increases coming from OS and WM. Otoscopy clinical skills increased and were retained only in OS. Preclerkship medical student acquisition and retention of otolaryngology diagnostic skills can be greatly improved through web-based teaching modules and otoscopy simulation.