To perform a state-of-the-art review of the literature from January 2012 through May 2015 on studies that advanced our knowledge of the innate and adaptive immunology related to otitis media. This review also proposes future directions for research in this area.Data Sources
PubMed database of the National Library of Medicine.Review Methods
Three subpanels comprising experts in the field focused on sections relevant to cytokines, innate immunity, and adaptive immunity. The review focused on animal, cell line, and human studies and was critical in relation to the recommendations from the previous publication and for determination of the proposed goals and priorities. The panel met at the 18th International Symposium on Recent Advances in Otitis Media in June 2015 to consolidate its prior search results and discuss, plan, and refine the review. The panel approved the final draft.Conclusion
From 2012 to 2014, tremendous progresses in immunology of otitis media were established—especially in the areas of innate immunity associated with the pathogenesis of otitis media.Implications for Practice
The advances of the past 4 years formed the basis for a series of short- and long-term research goals in an effort to guide the field. Accomplishing these goals will provide opportunities for the development of novel interventions, including new ways to better treat and prevent otitis media, especially for recurrent otitis media.