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To determine the accuracy of surgeon-performed ultrasound (SP-US) features for predicting intraoperative sialendoscopic findings and to correlate ultrasound features with short-term symptomatic outcomes following sialendoscopy-assisted salivary duct surgery (SASDS).Case series with chart review.The practices of 2 academic sialendoscopy surgeons.Between February 2014 and September 2015, 82 patients with 105 symptomatic glands underwent SASDS, of whom 56 patients (75 glands) met inclusion criteria. SP-US and sialendoscopic findings were reviewed for patients with chronic obstructive sialadenitis who underwent SASDS and who had been prospectively evaluated with the University of California–San Francisco Chronic Obstructive Sialadenitis Symptoms (COSS) questionnaire (scored 0-100) administered preoperatively and 3 months postoperatively.The positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of SP-US for identifying sialoliths intraoperatively were 94% (33/35) and 91% (39/43), respectively. Of glands with sialoliths on SP-US, 97% (34/35) had complete symptom resolution (COSS ≤10) after SASDS. The PPV and NPV of salivary duct dilation on SP-US for finding a corresponding stenosis on sialendoscopy were 93% (14/15) and 50% (14/28), respectively. Nonsialolith SP-US features with the highest PPV for complete or partial symptom resolution (COSS ≤25) following SASDS included distal duct dilation of all glands (86%; 6/7) and dilation of both distal and proximal parotid ducts (75%; 6/8).SP-US has high accuracy for ruling in and ruling out sialoliths, as well as for ruling in but not for necessarily ruling out stenosis presence and location. Ultrasound is helpful in estimating degree of short-term symptom response following SASDS.