Effectiveness of Transmastoid Plugging for Semicircular Canal Dehiscence Syndrome

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Abstract

Objectives

(1) Evaluate changes in subjective symptoms in patients following transmastoid canal plugging for superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) syndrome. (2) Quantify changes in hearing in patients who have undergone transmastoid canal plugging for SSCD syndrome.

Study Design

Case series with chart review.

Setting

Single tertiary care institution.

Subjects and Methods

We retrospectively reviewed patients with SSCD who underwent repair with canal plugging via a transmastoid approach between January 2012 and January 2017. Symptom severity was assessed prospectively (autophony, sound/pressure-induced vertigo, disequilibrium, aural fullness, and pulsatile tinnitus) and after surgery. Pure-tone and speech audiometry were measured before and after surgery. Two-sided Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were used to evaluate changes in subjective symptoms and audiometric outcomes.

Results

Seventeen patients (19 ears) met inclusion criteria. The superior canal was successfully plugged via the transmastoid approach in all cases. Patients reported a statistically significant improvement in autophony, vertigo, aural fullness, and pulsatile tinnitus (P < .01), without significant improvement in disequilibrium rating (P = .06). There were no changes noted in pure-tone average or word recognition score; however, there was a statistically significant improvement in air-bone gap at 250 Hz of 10.9 dB (P = .04) with 12.9-dB improvement in air conduction thresholds (P = .02) and no difference (0.9 dB, P = .9) in bone conduction thresholds.

Conclusion

In our study, patients with SSCD demonstrated excellent hearing outcomes and resolution of most otologic symptoms after surgical repair. Transmastoid canal plugging, which has been described to date only in smaller case series, is a safe and effective alternative to the traditional middle cranial fossa approach.

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