Cigarette smoking and passive smoke exposure have been associated with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). Our goal in this systematic review was to (1) determine if there was a strong correlative effect in large population studies between cigarette smoke exposure and the prevalence of CRS, (2) investigate pathogenic mechanisms of cigarette smoke in the upper airway, and (3) determine if a history of cigarette smoking affects the medical and surgical outcomes of CRS.Data Sources
MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, Web of Science SCI and CPCI-S, and websites.Methods
A comprehensive literature review and quantitative meta-analysis of studies based on the PRISMA protocol and examining the relationship between cigarette smoke exposure and CRS was performed. A search strategy was developed using various terms such as sinusitis, rhinitis, rhinosinusitis, and smoking. The articles were categorized by (1) epidemiology, (2) pathophysiology, and (3) outcomes. Data regarding study design, population/setting, methods, and bias were collected.Results
The initial search generated 2621 titles/abstracts with 309 articles undergoing secondary review and 112 articles for final review. We determined that there is a strong correlation between active and passive cigarette smoke with the prevalence of CRS. Cigarette smoke challenge to sinonasal epithelia results in the release of inflammatory mediators and altered ciliary beat frequency. Pediatric patients exposed to secondhand smoke appear to have particularly poor outcomes.Conclusion
There is clear evidence that cigarette smoke is related to CRS, but longitudinal and mechanistic studies are required to determine a causative effect. This information is critical for greater understanding of CRS health outcomes.