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To describe the determinants of survival for patients with floor of mouth (FOM) squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) from 1973 to 2013 with the SEER database (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results).Retrospective cohort study with a national database.The SEER registry was utilized to calculate survival trends for patients with FOM SCC between 1973 and 2013. Patient data were analyzed with respect to age, sex, race, primary site, stage at presentation, tumor size, grade, and treatment modalities (surgery and radiotherapy). Overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) were calculated.A total of 14,010 FOM SCC cases were identified. The cohort was 69.5% male, and the median age at diagnosis was 62 years. Forty-six percent of cases were treated with surgery, while 14% received radiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated OS and DSS of 39% and 59% at 5 years, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that age, grade, stage, size, and surgery were determinants for OS and DSS (all P < .05). For early- and advanced-stage cancers, age, grade, size, and surgery predicted OS and DSS, while radiotherapy was a predictor of OS and DSS in advanced-stage tumors only (all P < .05).To our knowledge, this study is the largest to date investigating prognostic factors for survival of patients diagnosed with FOM SCC. Determinants of survival include age, grade, stage, size, and surgery. Surgery appears to play a critical role in the management of these tumors.