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Wide variation exists regarding reported outcomes after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) for chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). This study seeks to combine data across studies to generate a summary measure and explore factors that might lead to variation.OVID Medline, Scopus, EbscoHost, Database of Abstracts and Reviews of Effects, Health Technology Assessment, and National Health Service Economic Evaluation Database.A search was performed following the PRISMA guidelines. Two independent researchers conducted a search using the mentioned data sources. Studies published before August 29, 2016, that involved ESS to treat CRSwNP were included. Mean changes in Sinonasal Outcome Test–22 (SNOT-22) scores were determined through metaregression of the following independent variables: publication year, sex, age, allergy status, asthma, tobacco use, prior surgery, follow-up length, and preoperative SNOT-22.Fifteen articles with 3048 patients treated with ESS met inclusion criteria. Pooled analyses of SNOT-22 scores revealed a mean change of 23.0 points (95% CI, 20.2-25.8; P < .001). A metaregression of patient factor effects on the mean change of SNOT-22 scores demonstrated that age (r = 0.71, P = .01), asthma (r = 0.21, P = .01), prior ESS (r = 0.29, P = .01), and preoperative SNOT-22 score (r = 0.4, P < .01) correlated with greater improvement in SNOT-22 scores. Tobacco use (r = −0.91, P = .01) and longer lengths of follow-up (r = −0.45, P < .01) were associated with less improvement in SNOT-22 scores.Quality-of-life outcomes are significantly improved after ESS among patients with CRSwNP. Patient-specific factors may affect the degree of SNOT-22 change after surgery.