To investigate the impact of a spoken language intervention curriculum aiming to improve the language environments caregivers of low socioeconomic status (SES) provide for their D/HH children with CI & HA to support children's spoken language development.Study Design:
Thirty-two caregiver–child dyads of low-SES (as defined by caregiver education ≤ MA/MS and the income proxies = Medicaid or WIC/LINK) and children aged <4.5 years, hearing loss of ≥30 dB, between 500 and 4000 Hz, using at least one amplification device with adequate amplification (hearing aid, cochlear implant, osseo-integrated device).Intervention:
Behavioral. Caregiver-directed educational intervention curriculum designed to improve D/HH children's early language environments.Main Outcome Measures:
Changes in caregiver knowledge of child language development (questionnaire scores) and language behavior (word types, word tokens, utterances, mean length of utterance [MLU], LENA Adult Word Count (AWC), Conversational Turn Count (CTC)).Results:
Significant increases in caregiver questionnaire scores as well as utterances, word types, word tokens, and MLU in the treatment but not the control group. No significant changes in LENA outcomes.Conclusion:
Results partially support the notion that caregiver-directed language enrichment interventions can change home language environments of D/HH children from low-SES backgrounds. Further longitudinal studies are necessary.