Incidence of Pediatric Superior Semicircular Canal Dehiscence and Inner Ear Anomalies: A Large Multicenter Review

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Abstract

Objective:

To determine the pediatric incidence and association of superior semicircular canal dehiscence (SSCD) with inner ear (IE) anomalies.

Study Design:

Retrospective chart review.

Setting:

Two tertiary referral centers.

Patients:

Children less than 18 years who received a 0.5 mm or less collimated computed tomography study including the temporal bones between 2010 and 2013 for reasons including, but not limited to, hearing loss, trauma, and infection.

Interventions:

Images were reformatted into Pöschl and Stenver planes. Five hundred three computed tomography studies (1,006 temporal bones) were reviewed by experienced, blinded neuroradiologists.

Main Outcome Measures:

Incidence of SSCD and IE anomalies. Patient age, sex, and diagnosis were recorded. Statistical analysis was performed to compare outcome measures among patient demographics.

Results:

The incidence of SSCD was 6.2% (31/503) and an IE anomaly was 15.1% (76/503) of individuals. The incidence of SSCD with an IE anomaly was not significantly correlated (1.1%, 40/1,006; p = 0.23; LR = +1.29). The mean age of children with SSCD was lower (5.9 versus 9.8 yr; p = 0.002). SSCD incidence decreased with age (ages <2, 2–8, and 9–18 yr were 36.7%, 5.6%, and 3.2%; p<0.001) and SSC bone thickness nonsignificantly increased with age. Children with SSCD were commonly male (74.2%, p = 0.041).

Conclusion:

SSCD and IE anomalies are unlikely related. SSCD incidence is highest in children <2 years, with SSC bone increasing until 2 to 8 years of age. This supports the theory of a congenital precedent to SSCD, with overlying bone maturation occurring during early childhood. Age <2 years was a significant predictor of SSCD.

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