Bilateral Labyrinthine and Internal Auditory Canal Enhancement in an Infant With Severe Labyrinthine Dysplasia: A Previously Unreported Phenomenon

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Objective:To describe a novel case of congenital profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a patient with bilateral nodular internal auditory canal and labyrinthine enhancement and temporal bone dysplasia.Patients:A 76-day-old female was referred to the authors’ center for evaluation of congenital deafness. Behavioral observations and objective audiometric evaluation demonstrated bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss and a comprehensive multidisciplinary evaluation identified compound heterozygous pathogenic variants in MYO7A, a gene associated with Usher Syndrome Type 1B or DFNB2. Computed tomography and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging studies demonstrated bilateral temporal bone anomalies with unique middle and inner ear malformations, as well as unique contrast enhancement in the membranous labyrinth, internal auditory canals, and cranial nerves, which have not been previously described with MYO7A variants.Interventions:Given the potential risk for progressive bilateral labyrinthitis ossificans, bilateral simultaneous cochlear implantation was performed at 4 months of age.Main Outcome Measures:Subsequent audiologic follow up after implantation shows significantly improved access to auditory information and increased vocalizations. At last testing, speech and language skills for both receptive and expressive language abilities were found to be commensurate with her chronological age.Conclusion:We report a novel presentation and imaging findings of congenital bilateral profound sensorineural hearing loss in a patient with nodular internal auditory canal and labyrinthine enhancement and coexisting inner ear dysplasia. Despite the multiple radiologic abnormalities, the patient has demonstrated good benefit from cochlear implantation. Future study of rare variants of congenital deafness, such as this, is critical toward defining new disease processes and determining optimal treatment.

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