Transcanal Endoscopic Ear Surgery for Middle Ear Cholesteatoma

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Objective:To evaluate the clinical parameters, outcomes, and complications of transcanal endoscopic ear surgeries for middle ear cholesteatoma.Study Design:Retrospective study.Setting:Tertiary university-affiliated medical center.Patients:Adult patients (age >18) who underwent transcanal endoscopic ear surgeries for cholesteatoma, between March 2009 and March 2015.Intervention:Transcanal endoscopic surgery was indicated when the cholesteatoma did not extend posterior to the anterior limb of the lateral semicircular canal. Rigid endoscopes 4 and 2.7 mm in diameter, 0, 30, 45, and 70 degrees were used with angled picks, suction, and forceps.Preoperative assessment included high-resolution computed tomography of the temporal bones and/or non echo-planar diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging and pure-tone audiometry.Main Outcome Measures:Residual or recurrent disease was diagnosed by clinical examination and/or magnetic resonance imaging findings consistent with cholesteatoma. Intra- and postoperative complications, pre- and postoperative audiometric results were recorded.Results:Sixty operations (56 patients, mean age = 43.6) were included.Six operations (10%) were performed under local anesthesia. The most common sites of cholesteatoma involvement were: posterior epitympanum (n = 51, 91%), anterior epitympanum (n = 19, 33.9%), posterior mesotympanum (n = 13, 23.2%), and sinus tympani (n = 11, 19.6%). Intraoperative ossicular chain reconstruction was performed in 18 (30%) cases.Our overall residual and recurrence rates were 10% (n = 6) and 8.3% (n = 5), respectively, with mean duration of follow up of 35 months. The most common sites of residual disease were the mastoid cavity/antrum (n = 3, 50%), tympanic cavity, and posterior mesotympanum. Overall minor and major complication rates were 16.6 and 6%, respectively.Conclusions:Transcanal endoscopic ear surgery was found to be an acceptable and safe technique for the exposure and eradication of middle ear and/or attic cholesteatoma.

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