Analysis of Otologic Features of Patients With Primary Ciliary Dyskinesia

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To evaluate otologic features of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD), especially eardrum features, audiometric findings, and clinical course.

Study Design:

Retrospective patient review.


Tertiary referral center.


Fifteen patients (mean age, 16.9 years [range, 1–32 yr]; 8 males and 7 females) diagnosed with PCD at our university hospital in the last 12 years.



Main Outcome Measures:

Electron microscopy of nasal cilia, gene mutation analysis, endoscopy of 30 eardrums, pure-tone audiometry, and tympanometry.


All 15 patients showed ciliary ultrastructural abnormalities on electron microscopy and/or biallelic mutations in genes associated with ciliary function or structure. All 30 eardrums examined showed certain abnormalities. Fourteen patients had otitis media with effusion or its sequelae. The remaining patient had chronic otitis media. Pure-tone audiometry revealed the mean air conduction thresholds to be 25.0 and 26.4 dB in the right and left ears, respectively. In the ears with better hearing and worse hearing, the mean air conduction thresholds were 22.3 and 29.0 dB respectively.


Otologic disease among patients with PCD essentially comprised otitis media with effusion, and the patients’ eardrums showed a variety of findings. Knowledge of these otologic features may lead to the early detection of PCD.

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