The purpose of this study was to examine the literature regarding the natural history and rehabilitative outcomes of sensorineural hearing loss from congenital cytomegalovirus infections.Data Sources and Study Eligibility Criteria:
A systematic search was performed in PubMed, PsychINFO, CINAHL, and Web of Science to identify peer-reviewed research. Eligible studies were those containing original peer-reviewed research in English addressing either the natural history or rehabilitative outcomes of sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) in congenital cytomegalovirus (cCMV).Study Appraisal and Synthesis Methods:
Two investigators independently reviewed all articles and extracted data. Bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool and the Newcastle-Ottawa Assessment Scale.Results:
Thirty-six articles were reviewed. Universal screening identifies 0.2 to 1% of newborns with cCMV infection. SNHL ranged from 8 to 32% of infants and was more prevalent in symptomatic versus asymptomatic cases. Nine to 68% of hearing loss occurs in a late or delayed fashion. In 7 to 71% of cases hearing loss is progressive. Cochlear implantation (CI) is a viable option for patients with cCMV associated hearing loss and leads to improvements in hearing and language. There is limited literature comparing rehabilitation outcomes in cCMV and non-cCMV CI recipients.Conclusion:
Late onset and progressive hearing loss is seen in children who develop hearing loss from cCMV. Frequent audiologic follow-up is necessary considering the natural history of cCMV hearing loss. Universal screening should be pursued due to the number of asymptomatic children, at birth, who develop late onset/delayed hearing loss. CI is an effective means of improving speech and language in this population.