Techniques of maxillary–mandibular fixation

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Abstract

Maxillary-mandibular fixation (MMF) methods are important in the surgical management of the lower facial skeleton. Various techniques have been described to fixate these bones during treatment of facial trauma, reconstruction, and orthognathic surgery. The utilization and technique of placement for Erich arch bars, Ivy loops, Ernst ligatures, and fixation screws are reviewed.

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