Blood loss mitigation and replacement in facial surgery: a review

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Purpose of reviewTo provide a comprehensive overview of the predisposing factors that contribute to a risk of excess bleeding for surgical therapy in the head and neck regions, provide a thorough overview of techniques and tools for managing blood loss complications, and provide intervention algorithms to help guide clinical decision making.Recent findingsWith the current landscape of medications and reversal agents, protocols for intervention in a variety of situations, and new tools for blood loss management all rapidly changing and being developed it is critical to stay up to date to provide patients the best care in the most critical of situations.SummaryWith the risk of blood loss complications in head and neck surgery ranging from minimal to extreme surgeons require a comprehensive understanding risk factors, patient evaluation tools, and proper management algorithms. The first opportunity to prevent unnecessary blood loss and blood loss complications is the health history and physical appointment where a clinician can identify any medications, conditions, or other predisposing factors that would elevate a patient's risk of excess bleeding and the necessity for treatment augmentation. Although not all complications can be prevented because of the natural physiological variation that occurs from patient to patient, despite proper and proper diagnostics, a full working knowledge of most likely complications, hemostatic tools, and concise communication with team members can prevent a lot of blood loss and the complications associated.

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