A Critical Reflection on Arnheim's Gestalt Theory of Aesthetics

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Abstract

Rudolf Arnheim applied the fundamental principles of Gestalt psychology to the creation and appreciation of film and art. These principles emphasize the primacy of structured perception and the spontaneous experience of emotional expression. The interplay of compositional “forces” creates a sense of tension in the overall structure of an artwork. Viewers spontaneously experience these effects but must learn that aesthetic “seeing” proceeds from the broadest overall pattern to individual features. The metaphorical meaning in a painting emerges when its subject matter is experienced in the context of its expressive structure. By way of critical commentary, it is proposed that metaphorical concepts like “forces” and “fields” should not be taken too literally lest they become reified. The focus should be placed on the dynamic effects of compositional contrasts and resulting tensions rather than on abstract “forces.” With these ideas in mind, expressive structure in painting is explored in terms of complementary relations between two-dimensional surface and three-dimensional illusionist spaces. Following in Arnheim's didactic tradition, these ideas are examined in relation to a specific artwork through a discussion with the artist.

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