|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Do perceptions of creative categories proposed by the 4 C model differ across cultures? To answer this research question, 2 studies were conducted to examine the generalizability of the 4 C model among participants from Mexico and Germany. Participants completed a battery of questionnaires measuring perceptions of the 4 Cs, self-deceptive enhancement, impression management, and need for cognition. Structural equation modeling was used to test for the proposed factor structure and for configural invariance. Results showed that the 4-factor structure was supported across both countries. There was also support for configural invariance. However, the hierarchical structure of the 4 C model was not completely supported in either country. Results of the study are discussed, as well as implications for future research.