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Allograft biopsy allows practitioners to identify allograft rejection and to determine the level of rejectionseverity; allograft biopsy also allows differentiation from other processes that may acutely injure the allograft. The causes and severity of chronic allograft injury can slso be determined using a renal biopsy. The histolgic grading systems for acute allograft rejection are reviewed and the role of immunohistochemistry and molecular diaqgnostic techniques is discussed. Chronic injury may be defined using a biopsy, and further refinements of histologic assessment using immunohistochemistry and molecular approaches are also considered.