A 60-year-old woman with kappa light chain deposit discase developed and stage renal failure over 5 years. There was no evidence of an underlying multiple myeloma. Recurrence of disease in the allograft was documented by a biopsy performed 3 years after renal transplantation. Graft loss occurred 3 years later and required a second transplant, which showed satisfactory function 10 months postoperatively. The histoparhologic differential diagnosis of light chain deposit disease is discussed, and literture on recurrent allograft involvement is reviewed.