Noninvasive Imaging in Cardiac Resynchronization Therapy—Part 2: Follow-up and Optimization of Settings

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Abstract

Cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) has become a therapeutic option for drug-refractory heart failure. Several noninvasive imaging techniques play an increasingly important role before and after device implantation. This review highlights the acute and long-term CRT benefits after implantation as assessed with echocardiography and nuclear imaging. Furthermore, optimization of CRT settings, in particular atrioventricular and interventricular delay, will be discussed using echocardiography and other (device-based) techniques.

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