Lead extraction (LE) techniques have evolved from simple traction to extraction with dilators and powered sheaths with very high success rates. On the basis of the systematic implementation of a stepwise approach, we aimed to identify those characteristics that can predict the need for advanced LE techniques.Methods:
Between April 2005 and March 2012, 208 consecutive LE procedures were performed and 456 leads were extracted using an initial superior approach. Advanced techniques for LE (step 4 according to our stepwise approach) were used in 122 patients (58.7%).Results:
Younger patient age (odds ratio [OR] = 0.963, P = 0.002), longer duration of the initial implantation (OR = 1.013, P = 0.002), the number of extracted leads (OR = 2.184, P < 0.001), and the presence of right ventricular defibrillator leads (OR = 2.144, P = 0.049) independently predicted the necessity of using step 4 in multivariate analysis. A prediction tool was created taking into account four categorical variables derived even from Receiver Operating Curve analysis of quantitative characteristics (age < 70.7 years, implant duration > 37 months, extraction of at least two leads, one of them being a defibrillator lead). The absence of all the four characteristics was accompanied by 0% positive predictive value for the requirement of step 4 for LE, whereas the coexistence of all four risk factors is characterized by 87% requirement of advanced LE.Conclusion:
In most of the patients with indication for LE, use of a powered sheath extraction is necessary in order to obtain clinical success. We have identified four patient and lead characteristics that may help the operator plan the means of extraction.