Quality use of medicines: A new method of combining antibiotic consumption and sensitivity data—application in a Russian hospital†

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Antibiotic use and resistance is subject of great concern. There is a need for internationally comparable and locally useful data collection and reporting. We developed a new method to combine and present data on antibiotic use and resistance in a figure in a Russian 1300 bed-hospital.


We applied World Health Organization (WHO) Anatomic Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) classification/defined daily doses (DDD) analysis on antibacterials for systemic use (ATC: J01) delivered by the pharmacy for the years 2003–2005. Microbial resistance data were presented within the range of drugs accounting for 90% of the volume in DDD, i.e. drug utilisation 90% (DU90%).


From the DU90% profile the following was seen: in 2003, 12 of 25 drugs accounted for 90% of the volume. For six of the most commonly used antibiotics, including the two cheapest (gentamicin, ampicillin), a significant number of the strains tested were resistant. For the remaining antibiotics no resistance data were available. These data were discussed in early 2004. A general decrease of antibiotic use and resistance was seen in 2005 (by 57% from 15.5 to 8.8 DDD/100 bed days) with a concomitant decrease in expenditures (by 64%) and a shift to more potent antibiotics.


The created profile highlighted potential problems in a clear and easy form. Besides being an indicator of the quality of antibiotic use it was a powerful alert and driving force for change. It can be used for external comparisons and for local monitoring of antibiotic use and resistance and can be applied with routinely available data in any hospital. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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