The effect of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin receptor blocker use on mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease: a meta-analysis of observational studies

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Abstract

Purpose

There has been much controversy over the use of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACEIs/ARBs) on patients with renal dysfunction. The purpose of this study was to summarize the evidence regarding the effect of ACEIs/ARBs administration on mortality in patients with nondialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD) by using a meta-analytic approach.

Methods

We searched the PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science databases for studies on the effect of ACEIs/ARBs administration on mortality in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD published before March 2015. Summary effect estimates with 95% confidence intervals were derived using the random-effects model, no matter whether the heterogeneity between the included studies was of statistical significance or not. Subgroup analyses, sensitivity analyses, and publication bias tests were performed.

Results

Up to 25 March 2015, 10 cohort studies were included in this meta-analysis. The hazard risk of the association between ACEIs/ARBs administration and overall mortality was 0.83 (95% confidence interval 0.78–0.87) using a random-effects model with no heterogeneity (heterogeneity test I2 = 43.8%, p = 0.067) and publication bias (Egger's test, p = 0.763). The subgroup was divided according to estimated glomerular filtration rate, duration of follow-up, Newcastle–Ottawa Scale star, and proportion of patients with common complications including heart failure, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. Improved survival outcomes were observed in all subgroups analysis. Sensitivity analysis proved that overall estimated effect was robust.

Conclusion

This meta-analysis suggested that the use of ACEIs/ARBs in patients with nondialysis-dependent CKD was associated with improved survival. However, randomized studies are needed to confirm these findings and further establish causal relationship. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

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