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The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of low back pain (LBP) among school children and the consequences that this problem may have in relation to gender. This study was designed as a cross-sectional 22-question questionnaire-based on LBP completed by a 10- to 18-year-old Turkish sample. The subjects were 624 school children (335 boys and 289 girls) who were attending primary, secondary or high schools in Denizli, Turkey (mean age = 13.91 years, SD = 2.34). Each subject completed the questionnaire under supervision by an investigator during school time. Data were analysed comparing the two genders. Two hundred and ninety-two school children (46.7%) had LBP. Boys were 153 (52.4%) and girls 139 (47.6%). Both boys and girls with LBP reported that LBP did not interfere negatively with their school performance (67.5%) and with daily activities (87.5%). The risk factors should be investigated at early stages of the life. Therefore, a national LBP prevention program should be performed at community level.