|| Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid
Nutritional support and pain control by medication are often used concomitantly, but interactions are hardly investigated. A randomised, double-blind, cross-over study in ten right-handed volunteers was performed evaluating the influence of cholecystokinin (CCK)-excretion on the perception of pain in a standardised model. CCK-excretion was induced by a liquid formula diet with either long- or medium-chain triglycerides (LCT, MCT). Plasma samples were drawn over a 60 min period in 15-min intervals and CCK and somatostatin (SMS) were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA). Gastric emptying was evaluated by C-13-breath testing. Transcutaneous electrical stimulation at a high current density (5 Hz, 70.1±5.8 mA) was used to provoke acute pain and stable areas of secondary mechanical hyperalgesia and pinprick allodynia for 2 h. Ongoing pain ratings as well as extension of pinprick-hyperalgesia and allodynia were compared between both liquid formula diets. In a second series of experiments, alfentanil (4.1±0.5 mg) was administered for 90 min using target-controlled infusions and measurements were performed as stated above. Oral administration of LCT as well as MCT may lead to different CCK blood levels, but we found no evidence for CCK-induced effects on pain sensation, touch-evoked allodynia, secondary hyperalgesia or morphine-induced anti-nociception in humans. In our studies, liquid formula diets did not influence acute pain perception or the efficacy of opioids in a human model of pain.