Sleep disturbances are particularly troublesome in patients with painful rheumatic disease. This article reviews the literature specifically published on sleep disturbances in osteoarthritis, a prevalent pathology and leading cause of disability. Several aspects of the relationship between sleep and osteoarthritis are discussed, including epidemiology, pathophysiological hypotheses, and treatment outcomes. Sleep is of central importance in the well-being of patients and should systematically be assessed in patients with osteoarthritis. When needed, a specific treatment of sleep disorders should be associated with an optimal management of pain to achieve synergistic improvements in quality of life. More large-scale studies are needed to identify predictive factors of sleep impairment in osteoarthritis.