Provocation tests for the diagnosis of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis

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Abstract

Background:

Little has been reported regarding provocation tests for the diagnosis of food-dependent exercise-induced anaphylaxis (FDEIA), especially in children and adolescents. Hence, we here aimed to examine the usefulness and safety of such tests for FDEIA.

Methods:

We retrospectively analyzed 41 patients with 184 provocation tests. The patients underwent ergometer stress tests after ingesting the suspected foods along with aspirin. When one or more allergic symptoms appeared, we judged the provocation test as positive.

Results:

Based on 30 positive test results (16%), we diagnosed 20 patients (49%) as FDEIA. The major causative foods were as follows: wheat alone (five patients), combination of wheat and shrimp (three patients), combination of wheat and apple (two patients), and peach alone (two patients). The symptoms appeared within 45 min after initiating exercise in 29 tests (97%). The most frequent symptoms were cutaneous symptoms, which appeared in 25 tests (83%). Of the 30 positive tests, 6 (20%) required administration of adrenaline. After discharge, the patients with negative test results had no episodes of FDEIA due to the suspected foods that they had been tested for.

Conclusion:

Provocation tests enabled us to confirm the diagnosis of FDEIA when positive and to exclude the diagnosis when negative. However, as severe symptoms may appear, these tests should be performed in a hospital under constant supervision of a physician.

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