Could familial Mediterranean fever gene mutations be related to PFAPA syndrome?

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Abstract

Background:

The cause and pathophysiology of PFAPA syndrome is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine all MEFV gene variants relevant to familial Mediterranean fever in children with PFAPA syndrome.

Methods:

All MEFV gene variants were analyzed in patients with PFAPA syndrome. All patients were evaluated using the Gaslini scoring system. Serum immunoglobulin levels were also determined upon admission.

Results:

We evaluated 64 patients with PFAPA syndrome. The median age at diagnosis was 37.5 (min–max: 6–96) months, and the percentage of male patients was 55.0%. The Gaslini diagnostic score for periodic fever was high in 81.0% of the patients. An MEFV gene mutation was found in 42 (66.0%) children. Mostly, heterozygous or compound heterozygous variants of the MEFV gene were found. Two patients were homozygous for R202Q. MEFV gene mutations were not detected in 22 (34.0%) patients. No significant differences in clinical or laboratory findings were observed between the two groups (p > 0.05), and there were no significant differences in period and duration of the fever episodes (p > 0.05). The fever of all 47 patients (100.0%) who received prednisolone during the episodes decreased within hours and did not recur. Eighteen of the patients using prednisolone underwent prophylaxis with colchicine, and the fever episodes of 9/18 (50.0%) patients using colchicine decreased within months.

Conclusions:

Most patients presenting with PFAPA syndrome have heterozygous MEFV gene mutations. Whether carrying a heterozygous MEFV gene is the primary cause of this syndrome requires further investigation.

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