Chronic pain in children is a poorly recognized entity that is challenging to treat and leaves many families frustrated. Often, lack of an identifiable etiology along with the complex biopsychosocial nature of this condition leads to a lengthy diagnostic odyssey and delayed treatment that exacerbates the existing problem. Effective treatment of chronic pain requires a team approach in order to deal with the various aspects of this condition. Combinations of medication along with nonpharmacologic treatments, such as physical therapy, psychological interventions and complementary therapies, are often the most effective ways of treating chronic pain rather than medication alone. Further research is needed to understand the complex biobehavioral processes involved in the development and maintenance of chronic pain. Development of targeted novel therapies as well as comparative studies of existing treatments will help to improve treatment for chronic pain in children.