Our purpose was to investigate enzymatically and morphologically the acute effect of the immunosuppressive agent cyclosporin A (CsA) on the exocrine pancreas of rats. The intravenous injection of CsA 10 and 20 mg/kg body weight (BW) increased the content of pancreatic amylase and protein and decreased the content of pancreatic DNA. Histologically, we observed intraacinar vacuolization and individual cell necrosis. Under stimulation of the pancreas by two intraperitoneal injections of caerulein 5 μg/kg BW at 1-h intervals (which did not induce any evident change in the pancreas), CsA induced a significant increase in serum amylase and in pancreatic wet weight in a dose-dependent manner. CsA at doses of 10 and 20 mg/kg BW produced a significant increase in the content of pancreatic amylase and protein. Macroscopically, we observed marked pancreatic edema, venous dilatation, and patchy hemorrhage. Histologically, there were significant differences in the seventy of intra-acinar vacuolization, interstitial edema, neutrophil infiltration, individual cell necrosis, and hemorrhage, severity of which was dose dependent. Pancreatic ductal erosion was particularly marked following treatment with CsA 20 mg/kg BW. These findings indicate that CsA accelerates abnormal pancreatic enzyme secretion and suggest that the therapeutically recommended doses of CsA can induce acute pancreatitis under stimulation of the pancreas.