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The role of parathyroid hormone (PTH) and calcium on pancreatic exocrine secretion were observed using sham-operated and parathyroidectomized dogs. First, exocrine secretion of the pancreas stimulated with secretin and cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK-8) was examined in vivo 3 weeks after parathyroidectomy. Secondly, perfusion experiments of isolated pancreas in the sham-operated and parathyroidectomized dogs were examined. In one experiment, volume of pancreatic juice and bicarbonate output, but not amylase output, was decreased in the parathyroidectornized dogs compared with those in the sham-operated dogs; no participation of calcium in exocrine secretion was revealed. In another experiment, high doses of PTH evoked increases of pancreatic juice and bicarbonate output without changing amylase output; as before, no participation of calcium in the exocrine secretion was observed. We conclude that (a) FTH increases volume of pancreatic juice and bicarbonate output, and (b) pancreatic exocrine secretion is modified by direct effect of PTH, and the pancreatic ductular cells, not the acinar cells, are the target for PTH.