The hormonal mechanisms mediating protein-stimulated pancreatic exocrine secretion were investigated in four conscious dogs with gastric cannulas and Thomas duodenal cannulas. Pancreatic juice was collected by direct cannulation of the main pancreatic duct in response to intraduodenal infusates prepared with cooked beef liver. When the homogenized liver was administered intraduodenally, cholecystokinin (CCK) in plasma significantly increased. This increase was accompanied by a significant increase in pancreatic exocrine secretion, including volume, bicarbonate, and protein output. The liver homogenate incubated with pancreatic enzymes further increased both plasma CCK and exocrine pancreatic secretion. However, plasma secretin was not affected by the protein digests. Intravenous administration of loxiglumide at the rate of 5.0 and 10.0 mg/kg/h resulted in a significant decrease in the stimulated pancreatic secretion of fluid, bicarbonate, and protein. The study indicates that endogenous CCK released by protein digests exerts not only enzyme secretion but also bicarbonate secretion in dogs.