Cellophane wrapping of the adult Syrian golden hamster pancreas has been found to result in ductular cell proliferation leading to islet regeneration. Injection of cytosol from a cellophane-wrapped pancreas into normal or diabetic hamsters evoked a similar response. In view of the therapeutic potential of the active substance in this cytosol, it was decided to investigate whether a similar response could be achieved in a primate. In normal adult Vervet monkey (Cercopithecus aerhiops) pancreas, proliferation is seen only rarely in islet cells and occasionally in duct and acinar cells. Immunohistochemi-cal investigation of normal Vervet monkey pancreas (n = 4) and 14 days (n = 2) and 56 days (n = 1) after cellophane wrapping of the Vervet monkey pancreas revealed a slight increase in proliferation of islet and acinar cells and a larger increase in proliferation of duct cells and in total endocrine cell volume. The results suggest that there is a latent developmental capability in the adult primate pancreas.