Switching From High-Fat to Low-Fat Diet Normalizes Glucose Metabolism and Improves Glucose-Stimulated Insulin Secretion and Insulin Sensitivity But Not Body Weight in C57BL/6J Mice

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Abstract

Objectives

Environmental factors such as a high-fat diet contribute to type 2 diabetes and obesity. This study examined glycemia, insulin sensitivity, and β-cell function after switching from a high-fat diet to a low-fat diet in mice.

Methods

C57BL/6J mice were fed a high-fat diet or low-fat diet for 18 months, after which mice on the high-fat diet either maintained this diet or switched to a low-fat diet for 4 weeks. Body weight and glucose and insulin responses to intraperitoneal glucose were determined. Insulin secretion (insulinogenic index: the 10-minute insulin response divided by the 10-minute glucose level) and insulin sensitivity (1 divided by basal insulin) were determined.

Results

After 18 months on a high-fat diet, mice had glucose intolerance, marked hyperinsulinemia, and increased body weight compared to mice on a low-fat diet (P < 0.001). Switching from a high-fat diet to low-fat diet normalized glucose tolerance, reduced but not normalized body weight (P < 0.001), increased insulin secretion (248 ± 39 vs 141 ± 46 pmol/mmol; P = 0.028) and improved but not normalized insulin sensitivity (3.2 ± 0.1 vs 1.0 ± 0.1 [pmol/L]−1; P = 0.012).

Conclusion

Switching from a high-fat diet to low-fat diet normalizes glucose tolerance and improves but not normalizes insulin secretion and insulin sensitivity. These effects are more pronounced than the reduced body weight.

Abbreviations

AUC - area under the curve, FFA - Free fatty acids, T2DM - Type 2 diabetes mellitus

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