Weight Gain in Zollinger-Ellison Syndrome After Acid Suppression

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Abstract

Objectives

Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES) is characterized by hypergastrinemia and gastric acid hypersecretion resulting in peptic ulcer disease, diarrhea, and weight loss. Acid secretion can be controlled with medication, and biochemical cure is possible with surgery. Data on how these interventions affect patients’ weight are lacking. We aimed to determine how medical and surgical acid control affects weight over time.

Methods

We performed a retrospective cohort study on 60 ZES patients. Acid control was achieved with appropriate-dose proton pump inhibitor (PPI) therapy. Surgery was performed for curative intent when appropriate. Weight change was assessed versus pre–acid control or immediate preoperative weights and expressed as absolute and percent change from baseline at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months.

Results

A total of 30 PPI-controlled patients and 20 surgery-controlled patients were analyzed. Weight gain was noted at all time points while on appropriate-dose PPI therapy (P < 0.005). Of patients who had surgery with curative intent, weight gain was noted at 12 months (7.9%, P = 0.013) and 18 months (7.1%, P = 0.007). There was a trend toward weight gain seen at all time points in the patients who were surgically cured.

Conclusions

These data represent a novel description of weight gain after acid suppression in ZES.

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