Risk Factors of Hyperglycemia in Patients After a First Episode of Acute Pancreatitis: A Retrospective Cohort

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Abstract

Objectives

The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for hyperglycemia development after a first episode of acute pancreatitis (AP).

Methods

Three hundred and ten patients treated for AP were retrospectively evaluated. Hyperglycemia was determined by fasting blood glucose. All data were collected from the medical records room database and a follow-up telephone call.

Results

The incidence rate of hyperglycemia was obviously increased 5 years after the event. Hazard ratios (HRs) of developing hyperglycemia in patients with hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, and hypertension were 2.52 (P < 0.001), 1.87 (P = 0.01), and 1.78 (P = 0.017), respectively. Patients of biliary origin that underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography presented a 4.62-fold greater risk than those managed conservatively. Other risk factors were random blood glucose greater than 8.33 mmol/L (HR, 4.19; P < 0.001), lactate dehydrogenase greater than 350 U/L (HR, 1.99; P = 0.017), calcium less than 1.75 mmol/L (HR, 3.86; P = 0.004), and elevated creatine kinase (HR, 2.74; P = 0.001). Patients with AB blood type showed 2.92-fold greater risk compared with those with O blood type. Among them, hyperlipidemia and hyperglycemia on admission were the only independent risk factors (both P < 0.05).

Conclusions

Hyperlipidemia, fatty liver, hypertension, endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography treatment, acute hyperglycemia, elevated lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase, decreased calcium, and AB blood type were risk factors for hyperglycemia development after AP.

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