Low Alcohol and Cigarette Use Is Associated to the Risk of Developing Chronic Pancreatitis

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The aim of this study was to investigate the contribution of smoking and alcohol intake and pancreas divisum on the risk of developing chronic pancreatitis (CP).


Consecutive patients with CP who underwent secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography were compared with consecutive patients without pancreatic disease who underwent secretin-enhanced magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography for irritable bowel syndrome.


We enrolled 145 consecutive CP patients and 103 irritable bowel syndrome patients from 2010 to 2014. In a univariate analysis, statistically significant differences in sex, mean age, and the duration and amount of cigarette and alcohol use were found. Per a receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, thresholds for cigarette and alcohol consumption were, respectively, 5.5 cigarettes and 13.5 g daily. In a multivariate analysis, independent risk factors for CP were male sex (odds ratio [OR], 2.05), smoking more than 5.5 cigarettes per day (OR, 2.72), and drinking more than 13.5 g/d (OR, 6.35).


In an Italian population, we confirmed smoking and alcohol as cofactors in the development of CP. This study shows that alcohol intake and smoking habits are 2 of the most important risk factors for the development of CP.

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