Smad4 Loss Correlates With Higher Rates of Local and Distant Failure in Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma Patients Receiving Adjuvant Chemoradiation

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ObjectivesThe tumor suppressor gene SMAD4 (DPC4) is genetically inactivated in approximately half of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDAs). We examined whether Smad4 tumor status was associated with outcomes after adjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) for resected PDAs.MethodsPatients treated with adjuvant CRT were identified (N = 145). Smad4 status was determined by immunolabeling and graded as intact or lost. Kaplan-Meier method and multivariable competing risk analyses were performed.ResultsOn multivariate competing risk analysis, Smad4 loss was associated with increased risk of local recurrence (LR) (hazard ratio, 2.37; 95% confidence interval, 1.10–5.11; P = 0.027), distant failure (DF) (hazard ratio, 1.71; 95% confidence interval, 1.03–2.83; P = 0.037), and synchronous LR and DF at first recurrence (14.9 % vs 5.3%, P = 0.07) compared with Smad4 intact cancers. Smad4 loss was not associated with median overall survival (22 vs 22 months; P = 0.63) or disease-free survival (lost [13.6 months] vs intact [13.5 months], P = 0.79).ConclusionsAfter PDA resection and adjuvant CRT, Smad4 loss correlated with higher risk of LR and DF, but not with survival. Smad4 loss may help predict which surgical patients are at higher risk for failure after definitive management and may benefit from intensified adjuvant therapy.

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