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Reprimo gene is a cytoplasmic protein belonging to a family of molecules controlled by p53 that inhibits cell cycle progression. Ectopic expression of Reprimo results in cell cycle arrest at the G2 phase. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of Reprimo expression on tumorigenesis of intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN).Thirty-seven surgical cases of IPMN were collected retrospectively. Twenty-eight patients had benign IPMNs (low-grade dysplasia, n = 18; intermediate-grade dysplasia, n = 10), and the remaining 9 had malignant IPMNs (high-grade dysplasia, n = 4; invasive carcinoma, n = 5). DNA from tumor samples was extracted. DNA methylation patterns of Reprimo were determined by the methods of methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry. The methylation status of Reprimo was compared between benign IPMNs and malignant IPMNs.The incidence of aberrant DNA methylation of Reprimo was significantly higher in malignant IPMNs than in benign IPMNs (78% vs 32%, P = 0.016). Furthermore, the incidence of immunohistochemical Reprimo expression was significantly lower in malignant IPMNs than in benign IPMNs (22% vs 82%, P = 0.002).Reprimo methylation was found more frequently in malignant IPMNs. Reprimo methylation is involved in malignant transformation of IPMNs.