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The aim of this study was to assess prevailing treatment of pancreatolithiasis in Japan.We surveyed clinical data from 1834 patients (1479 men and 355 women) at 125 hospitals.Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy (ESWL) was performed alone in 103 patients (5.6%), ESWL plus an endoscopic procedure in 446 (24.3%), endoscopic treatment alone in 261 (14.2%), and surgery in 167 (9.1%). Other treatments were given to 358 (19.5%), whereas 499 (27.2%) received no treatment. Symptoms were relieved in 85.7% after ESWL, 80.8% after endoscopic treatment alone, and 92.8% after surgery. Early complication rates within 3 months after ESWL, endoscopic treatment alone, and surgery were 8%, 4.5%, and 27.1%, respectively. Late complications after ESWL, endoscopic procedures alone, and surgery were 1.7%, 2.5%, and 8.2%, respectively. Symptom relief but also early and late complications were greater after surgery than after ESWL and endoscopic treatment. Among 417 patients undergoing ESWL, 61 (14.6%) required surgery, as did 32 (16%) of 200 patients treated endoscopically. Surgery was required less frequently following initial operative treatment (11/164 patients [6.7%]). Nonsurgical initial treatments were chosen more frequently.First-line treatment of pancreatolithiasis should be ESWL with or without endoscopy because of minimal invasiveness and fewer complications.